For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used
in traditional medicine for the relief of pain
and protecting the body against
- oxidative stress,
- free radical damages,
- virus infection,
Do YOU have the audacity to IGNORE the sage remedies?
This herb and many others have the capability to suppress or treat such as the aforementioned disorders.
Is it a myth or is it a reality?
If you DON’T TRUST the effectiveness of herbs and vegetation then YOU MUST GET INFORMED
As this herb is clearly one of many in the business of health promotion
and a herb for the immune system.
Furthermore, studies suggest that the sage species
is considered for drug development
because of their reported pharmacology and
therapeutic activities in many countries of
Asia and the Middle East, especially in China and India.
These studies suggest that the Salvia species along with
other natural vegetation are used around the world.
Used to treat minor common illnesses,
May potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or
cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases
- HEART DISEASE
The genus Salvia, commonly known as sage
is the largest member of Lamiacea or
mint family containing over 900 species throughout the world.
The plants are mostly aromatic and perennial with flowers in different colors.
Many species of Salvia, including Salvia officinalis (common sage),
are native to the Mediterranean region
and some of the Salvia species have been used worldwide
as flavoring spices as well as traditional herbal medicine.
Sage tea has been traditionally used for the treatment of
- DIGESTIVE AND CIRCULATION DISTURBANCES
- MOUTH & THROAT INFLAMMATIONS
- EXCESSIVE SWEATING
- SKIN DISEASES
- MANY OTHER DISEASES
Salvia essential oils have been used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases like those of the
- NERVOUS SYSTEM
- HEART AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
- RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
- DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
- METABOLIC AND ENDOCRINE DISEASES
In addition, sage essential oil has been shown to have carminative,
antispasmodic, antiseptic, and astringent properties.
The essential oil of Salvia species has various compositions depending on the genetic,
climatic, seasonal, and environmental factors.
Some chemical compounds like flavonoids, terpenoids,
and essential oils are present in different species of Salvia.
Essential oils are very important sources for the screening of anticancer,
antimicrobial, antioxidant, and free radical scavenging agents.
officinalis(common sage) is considered to have the highest amount
of essential oil compared to the other species of Salvia.
Sage is also a natural source of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds
(e.g., carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid)
possessing strong antioxidant, radical-scavenging,
and antibacterial activities.
The majority of the phenolic acids in Salvia species are
derivatives of caffeic acid which is
the building block of a variety of plant metabolites.
officinalishas numerous common names.
Some of the best known names include sage,
- COMMON SAGE
- GARDEN SAGE
- GOLDEN SAGE
- KITCHEN SAGE
- TRUE SAGE
- CULINARY SAGE
- DALMATIAN SAGE
- BROADLEAF SAGE
Cultivated forms include purple sage and red sage.
In Turkey, S. officinalis is widely known as adaçayı, meaning “island tea.”
In the Levant, it is called maramia.
Caffeic acid plays a central role in the biochemistry of the Lamiaceae plants
and occurs mainly in a dimer form as rosmarinic acid.
Carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, which are present at high concentrations
in the extract of sage plants,
have shown strong antioxidant properties.
Ursolic acid, also a component of sage,
It has strong anti-inflammatory properties in sage preparations it is considered as a
quality control measurement for the anti-inflammatory effects of different solutions.
Antioxidants play a very important role in protecting the body against the oxidative stress
and free radical induced damages which are the cause of various ailments such as
- HEART DISEASE
- BRAIN DYSFUNCTION
- WEAKENED IMMUNE SYSTEM, ETC
In a study conducted on the antioxidant activity of many plant extracts, like sage (S. officinalis),
it was found that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant
and free radical scavenging effects of these plants.
Phenolic compounds such as
- ROSMARINIC ACIDS
- METHYL CARNOSATE
All have a high antioxidative activity and are usually extracted from sage with ethanol.
The phenolic compounds can either stimulate endogenous antioxidant defense systems
or scavenge reactive species.
The antioxidant properties of sage have been studied intensively,
and are found to be related to the presence of rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid.
In addition, salvianolic acid, which is a rosmarinic acid dimer
isolated from the sage extract,
showed a high antioxidant activity and is a
very significant scavenger of free radicals.
The aqueous extract of S. officinalis has been shown to
have antioxidant and antiviral effects.
In a study, it was observed that
after drinking sage tea (common sage) for 2 weeks
the liver antioxidant status improved.
Amongst many herbal extracts,
Salvia species are known for the beneficial effects on
Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage),
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Chinese sage)
have been used for centuries as restoratives of lost or declining
mental functions such as in Alzheimer’s disease.
In AD, the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase is responsible for
degrading and inactivating acetylcholine,
which is a neurotransmitter substance involved in the
signal transferring between the synapses,
inhibitor drugs act by counteracting the acetylcholine deficit
and enhancing the acetylcholine in the brain.
Essential oil of S. officinalis has been shown to inhibit 46%
of activity at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.
A study shows that S. officinalis improves the memory
and cognition, and with increasing dosage,
the mood gets elevated as well as alertness,
calmness, and contentedness increase.
A randomized, double-blind clinical study has shown that an
ethanolic extract from common sage (S. officinalis)
as well as Spanish sage (S. lavandulaefolia)
is effective in the management of mild to moderate AD,
and study on patients did not show any adverse effect on them on taking sage.
Administration of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) has been reported to be effective
in improving the speed of memory and mood.
Salvia essential oil also has been reported to improve immediate word recall.
A number of studies have investigated the effects of the aromas of
plant essential oils on cognition and mood.
The aroma of S. officinalis produced significant enhancement effect in
the quality of memory factor derived
from Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) system.
The findings suggest that the aromas of essential oils of Salvia species have some,
but not all the effects found following the oral consumption of the herb.
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of
the S. officinalis or S. lavandulaefolia may offer
a long-term protection in the pathogenesis of dementia.
Also, the mood-enhancing properties of the herb may have applications
in the treatment of advanced dementia,
in which disturbed mood and agitation feature as a major problem.
There is no report of negative side effects associated with S. officinalis or S. lavandulaefolia despite
many years of usage which again reiterates that sage is on of
the most healthy herbs at our disposal to ward of a variety of diseases and viruses.
The cytoprotective effect of sage against toxicity in neuronal cells has also been
proven by the data presented
in a study which provides the pharmacological basis for the traditional use of
sage in the treatment of AD.
Rosmarinic acid as a component of sage has shown
and anti-apoptotic effects against toxicity, and this could contribute,
at least in part, to the neuroprotective effect of sage.
It is possible that rosmarinic acid, the very low toxic natural compound,
could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of AD.
officinalishas been used as a traditional remedy against diabetes in
many countries and its glucose-lowering
affects have been demonstrated in animal studies.
In a study, it was found that methanolic extracts of S. officinalis significantly decreased serum glucose
in type I diabetic rats without affecting pancreatic insulin production.
An aqueous extract of S. officinalis
has been found to exhibit insulin-like activities.
In a study, drinking of sage tea (common sage) (300 ml, twice a day)
showed increase in antioxidant defenses and improved the lipid profile,
without causing any hepatotoxicity or inducing any adverse affects
such as changes
- IN BLOOD PRESSURE
- HEART RATE
- BODY WEIGHT
which may indirectly improve the diabetic condition.
Tea infusions of S. officinalis have shown to be as effective as metformin,
which is an oral anti-diabetic drug used
for the treatment of type II diabetes, and act by reducing liver glucose production as well as
increasing the action of insulin.
In many studies, the sage extract was found to have hypoglycemic effect in
diabetic animals and further researches need
to consider the additional therapeutic effects of this plant in the future.
As a health promoting herb for the immune system can have an impact in cancer then
you might also consider it a miracle herb.
Cancer is characterized by abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in
an uncontrolled way, and in some cases,
spread to other parts of the body.
The important factor in proliferating and spreading of cancer cells is the ability of
tumors to produce a large number of new blood vessels,
which is known as angiogenesis.
Most primary solid tumors are dependent on angiogenesis for survival,
growth, invasion, and metastasis.
It was found in a study that S. officinalis extract at pharmacological concentrations inhibits
angiogenesis in vivo,
which could be a novel starting point for the development of a
new anti-angiogenic drug.
Ursolic acid found in sage effectively inhibits angiogenesis,
invasion of tumor cells, and metastasis,
and suppresses the lung colonization of B16 melanoma cells in vivo.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common type of cancer and a significant cause of
mortality in Western societies.
It develops by genetic and epigenetic alterations which transfer normal colon cells to
This study has shown that dietary compounds can change the epigenetic status.
Many food plants are rich in bioactive compounds and have shown to possess anticancer properties.
The effect of drinking sage (S. officinalis) herbal tea was studied on the
prevention of colon cancer in rats.
It was found that S. officinalis water extract significantly decreased the
oxidative H2O2-induced DNA damage in vitro.
Some diterpenoids isolated from the roots of S. officinalis have been found
to have cytotoxic
and DNA-damaging activity in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells and
human hepatoma HepG2 cells in in vitro conditions.
The sesquiterpene fraction of S. officinalis containing α-humulene
demonstrated a strong cytotoxic activity
in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells.
Also, trans-caryophyllene, which is the main component of the
sesquiterpene fraction in S. officinalis,
shows high cytotoxic activity against the melanotic melanoma and
renal adenocarcinoma cells.
Presence of α-humulene as a component of S. officinalis demonstrated
a strong cytotoxic activity
on the human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells.
Salvia libanotica (Lebanese sage) is one of the largely used sage species in
which has been used for many years to cure diseases such as abdominal pains,
headaches, indigestion, and heart disorders.
The oil extract of this species was shown to possess strong antimicrobial and
The components of Lebanese sage essential oil were identified by gas chromatography,
and three of the components which contain on average 9.1% camphor (Ca), 1.3% α-terpineol (Te),
and 1.1% linalyl acetate (Ly) were found to be responsible for the oil’s antibacterial,
anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
In this study, Ly, Te, and Ca synergistically induced cell cycle arrest and
apoptosis resulting in the inhibition
of the growth of human colon cancer cell lines, HCT-116 without any effect on the
growth of normal human intestinal cell lines.
The metabolite profile of S. miltiorrhiza (SM) or Chinese sage is
similar to that of common sage, and recently, it was shown that
an extract of SM was able to lower the plasma cholesterol,
low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TGs),
as well as increase the high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in
The extract of S. officinalis
is found to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma which is a regulator
of genes involved in energy spending as well as lipid and glucose metabolism,
and its activation improves the HDL/LDL ratio and lowers TGs in serum,
reduces insulin resistance, and reduces the size of adipose (fat) tissue.
Extracts from some sage species have been shown to be effective in the prevention
of cardiovascular disease due to at least in part,
prevention of LDL-cholesterol oxidation.
Overweight and obesity
are recognized to cause a number of abnormalities including Type II diabetes,
dylipidemia, hypertension, etc.,
which are all important risk factors in developing serious diseases such as
chronic kidney diseases,
and many others.
To regulate fat absorption, the effective way is to reduce body weight and obesity.
Pancreatic lipase is well known to play an important role in lipid digestion.
In several studies on anti-obese components from natural medicine,
the effects of S. officinalis
and its active components on the pancreatic lipase activity and
lipid digestion were investigated.
The methanolic extract from the leaves of S. officinalis L. significantly inhibited the
pancreatic lipase activity
and suppressed serum TG elevation in olive oil–loaded mice.
Carnosic acid and carnosol are two of the diterpenes isolated from the
methanolic extract of S. officinalis with
an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase.
Carnosic acid also significantly inhibited TG elevation in olive oil–loaded mice and
reduced the gain of body weight
and the accumulation of epididymal fat weight in
high fat diet–fed mice after 14 days.
In the course of several studies on anti-obese components from natural medicine,
the extract of S. officinalis leaves
showed inhibitory effect against the pancreatic lipase activity and eventually was
effective in reducing body weight and obesity.
Menopause is considered as a physiological adjustment process to an
altered hormonal balance. Menopausal symptoms include
- HOT FLASHES
- NIGHT-TIME SWEATING
- HEADACHES AND PALPITATIONS
These symptoms reflect adaptation of the body to estrogen deprivation which
affects various central neurotransmitters.
Another of the sage remedies (S. officinalis) has been traditionally used to treat sweating and
menopausal hot flashes,
as well as to alleviate the associated menopausal symptoms.
The efficacy of sage for the treatment of hot flashes during menopause was proven by
a multi-center open clinical trial.
A fresh sage preparation demonstrated clinical value in the treatment of hot flashes and
associated menopausal symptoms.
Once-daily application of the fresh sage extract demonstrated good
clinical value in terms of safety, efficacy,
and tolerability in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes and
climacteric symptoms, validated by statistical analysis
and the clinically relevant verdict of patients and physicians.
The study findings provide a scientific rationale for
sage’s use in folk medicine,
offering a valuable option for patients and healthcare providers seeking
for the treatment of menopausal hot flashes and
A study conducted on the antibacterial effect of sage against
selected food spoiling bacteria in vitro indicates
that the sage aqueous extract exerted significant antibacterial activity
and it was most effective against Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus.
This has made sage essential oil a good alternative to the traditional antibiotics
as well as food preservatives.
The findings of a study support the view that the hydroalcoholic extract of S. officinalis has
growth inhibitory effect
on some dental caries causing bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans,
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Actinomyces viscosus.
Based on this study and the global interest in using traditional treatments instead of
chemical solutions, S. officinalis
with its bactericidal effect could be a natural remedy for the treatment of
diseases affecting mouth and teeth.
A study showed that sage, along with different plant extracts was
comparable to synthetic preservatives,
and the result confirmed that the aqueous extract of S. officinalis can be used in
biotechnology as a natural preservative ingredient in food industry.
A study of the antibacterial activities of the essential oil of S. officinalis proved that
sage essential oil
in higher concentration exhibited a better efficiency than antibiotics.
Based on the medicinal use of sage in diarrhea and abdominal spasm,
the crude extract of sage was tested for its anti-diarrheal and
antispasmodic activities using the in
vitro and in vivo assays.
A study demonstrated that the crude extract provides protection against
diarrhea through its inhibitory effect
on gut motility by the presence of some gut relaxant components.
The data of a study suggest that the crude extract of S. officinalis possesses anti-diarrheal and
mediated possibly through activation of voltage-sensitive K+ channels, together with a weak Ca++ antagonist effect.
Therefore, this study provides pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of S. officinalis in
hyperactive gut disorders such as abdominal colic and diarrhea.
As far as we know,
there are no reports of the negative side effects associated with S. lavandulaefolia or
despite their usage for many centuries.
The normal usage of sage is very safe; however, there might be an adverse effect on
using S. officinalis in excessive amount,
which can be caused by the high content of thujone.
A study has shown that S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage), compared to
S. officinalis (common sage),
has similar compositions without the thujone content, which
makes it more suitable for those concerned
about the excessive usage of sage as a treatment.
In summary, The Salvia species has depicted to be largely a herb for the immune system and
may represent a natural, safe, and effective treatment for many diseases and their symptoms.
In recent decades, with the increase in pharmacological knowledge
about the beneficial effects of sage remedies,
especially S. officinalis, these herbal medicines with
- ANTIBACTERIAL ANTIOXIDANT
- FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING
- ANTI TUMOR ACTIVITIES
have been found to be very effective in the development of novel natural drugs to prevent, control,
and treat many minor health problems as well as more serious and
complicated diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s, and cancer.
It must be kept in mind that clinicians should remain cautious until
more definite studies demonstrate the safety,
quality, and efficacy of S. officinalis.
J Tradit Complement Med. 2014 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 82–88.